It is generally well tolerated, but retinopathy is a concern. Retinopathy is rare, but is sight threatening, generally irreversible and may progress even after cessation of therapy. Although a number of risk factors have been proposed (such as duration of therapy and cumulative dose), the many exceptions (e.g. Hydroxychloroquine drug guide What are the side effects of stopping plaquenil Chloroquine phosphate resistant malaria Drusen plaquenil A variety of medications bind with the cellular lipids of the basal epithelial layer of the cornea due to their cationic, amphiphilic properties. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic, is the most common cause of corneal verticillata, followed by chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, indomethacin, and phenothiazines. Keywords Confocalmicroscopy. Cornea. Hydroxychloroquine Introduction Vortex keratopathy cornea verticillata is characterized by a whorl-like pattern of greyish or golden-brown deposits in the corneal epithelium. It occurs in Fabry’s disease and as a side effect of various systemic medications, namely Corneal deposits called vortex keratopathy or corneal verticillata result from binding to cellular lipids and deposition of the drug in the basal epithelial layer of the cornea. Discontinuation of the drug usually causes the deposits to disappear over time. Novel technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and multifocal electroretinogram (mf ERG) may provide the earliest structural and functional evidence of toxicity in these stages. Retinopathy on low-dose HCQ, or no retinopathy after a very large cumulative dose of HCQ) highlight our limited understanding of the disease process. Cornea verticillata hydroxychloroquine Moran CORE Ocular Adverse Effects of Systemic Medications., In vivo confocal microscopy in hydroxychloroquine- induced. Hydroxychloroquine prescribing information pdfAralen cloroquina Cornea verticillata is often caused by the use of certain systemic medications, the most common of which include amiodarone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, indomethacin, and phenothiazenes. Cornea verticillata can also be seen in the sphingolipidosis, Fabry disease. Read the related case report for more information on cornea verticillata Cornea verticillata - Ophthalmology. Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity - StatPearls.. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Clinical.. Cornea • Retina Quick sidebar •Corneal verticillata whorl keratopathy •“ hloroquine, and less frequently HCQ, can cause whorl-like intraepithelial deposits verticillata in the cornea. These corneal changes are not a direct marker for retinal damage, are not associated with visual loss, and in contrast Hydroxychloroquine crystals have been found in the tear film, which may aggravate some sicca patients and contact lens wearers. Toxic maculopathy is usually reversible only in its earliest phases. If these drugs have caused skin, eyelid, corneal hydroxychloroquine or hair changes, this may be an indicator of possible drug-induced retinopathy. If cornea verticillata is associated with a drug that is known to produce retinal toxicities—most notably hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, and tamoxifen—patients should be routinely monitored with automated visual fields plus spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD OCT.